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[9.0] Antiship Missiles (1)

v1.5.0 / chapter 9 of 13 / 01 nov 04 / greg goebel / public domain

* Antiship attack was one of the principal missions that drove the early development of guided weapons in World War II. The Fritz-X, HS-293, and Bat were designed for attacks on ships from aircraft operating at high altitude, out of range of naval anti-aircraft defenses.

Interest in guided antiship weapons declined after the war, due to the limitations of the guidance technology available at the time and emphasis on the nuclear option, but by the late 1960s interest in guided munitions had revived and navies were beginning to take an interest in antiship missiles. Since then, antiship missiles have come into wide use with most of the world's armed forces. This chapter and the next discuss modern antiship missiles.


[9.1] ANTISHIP MISSILE TECHNOLOGY
[9.2] SAAB RB-04 / RBS-15F
[9.3] LIGHT ANTISHIP MISSILES: AS-12 / AS-15TT / SEA SKUA
[9.4] KONGSBERG PENGUIN / NSM
[9.5] EXOCET
[9.6] OTOMAT / MARTE
[9.7] SEA EAGLE

[9.1] ANTISHIP MISSILE TECHNOLOGY

* The Germans pioneered the use of antiship guided missiles with the Fritz-X and HS-293 glide bombs, but these were simply guided weapons that could in principle be used against any target, with few special optimizations for attacking naval targets. The US Bat was the true ancestor of the modern antishipping missile, in that it used a radar seeker to lock on to its target and perform a fire-and-forget attack. Such a simple radar seeker could pick out a ship against the sea, but picking out a land target from the clutter of the surrounding terrain is something that is difficult even today.

During the 1950s, wire-guided missiles were developed for carriage by helicopters and fixed wing aircraft for attacks on ground and naval targets. Like the German glide bombs, these missiles had no particular optimizations for attacking ships. They were also relatively slow, limited in range, and had to be controlled by the launch platform up to impact.

The first modern antiship missiles were deployed in the 1960s. They were characterized by a guidance system with three elements:

Once launched, the operation of these weapons was generally autonomous, making them among the first "fire and forget" weapons. Some of these weapons included a radio link for mid-course guidance corrections as well.

These antiship missiles could be fired from canisters mounted on fast patrol boats and frigates, or in some cases from canisters launched out of the torpedo tubes of submarines. The smaller antiship missiles could also be carried as external stores by helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft. Larger antiship missiles, which were generally ship-launched, were often turbojet powered, while the smaller ones were powered by solid fuel rocket motors, using a boost-sustain configuration. External solid rocket boosters were often fitted for additional thrust at takeoff, particularly for ship-launched weapons, and these external boosters were dropped after burnout.

These missiles were generally fitted with a "semi-armor piercing (SAP)" warhead, which was a hard-cased blast-fragmentation warhead with a delayed action fuze that allowed the warhead to penetrate a ship's hull before exploding. A secondary proximity fuze was also sometimes fitted, to allow the missile to cause damage even on a near miss.

* Modern antiship missiles conform to this general scheme, with a number of refinements. Lightweight turbofan engines have become cheaper and more common, and are used by most modern antiship missiles to provide longer range and a lower infrared signature. There have been a number of improvements in guidance systems as well:

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[9.2] SAAB RB-04 / RBS-15F

* While interest in guided antiship missiles was subdued in the 1950s, it was not entirely extinct. In 1949, the Swedish government placed a request for a radar-guided, air-launched antiship missile, something like an improved Bat. The request materialized as the SAAB "Robot-Byran (RB) 04", which was first test launched by a SAAB J-29 Tunnan fighter in early 1955.

The initial production version, the "RB-04C", entered service on Flygvapnet (Swedish Air Force) J-32 Lansen attack fighters in 1959. The RB-04C was of canard configuration, with short triangular cruciform fins around the nose, and two wide wings with fins attached to the wingtips. The RB-04C had a boost-sustain solid rocket motor and a SAP warhead that could be fitted with a contact or proximity fuze.

   SAAB RB-04C:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                2.04 meters         6 feet 8 inches
   length                  4.45 meters         14 feet 7 inches
   total weight            600 kilograms       1,320 pounds
   warhead weight          300 kilograms       660 pounds

   speed                   high subsonic
   range at altitude       32 kilometers       20 MI / 17 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The RB-04C led to the more advanced "RB-04D", which was introduced in the later part of the 1960s, and then the "RB-04E". The RB-04E featured a shorter wingspan of 1.97 meters (6 feet 6 inches) and an improved guidance system with features such as sea skimming.

* During the 1970s, SAAB developed a derivative of the RB-04 designated the "RBS-15", originally designed for launch from fast patrol boats. It retained the airframe and warhead configuration of the RB-04, but the two wide rear wings were replaced by four short-span cruciform wings, and the solid-rocket motor was replaced by a French Microturbo TRI 60-2 turbojet, with a thrust of 3.73 kN (380 kgp / 830 lbf).

The RBS-15 was adapted for air launch as the "RBS-15F", entering service in 1989. Such RB-04s as remained in service after that time were passed on to the training role.

   SAAB RBS-15F:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                1.4 meters          4 feet 7 inches
   length                  4.45 meters         14 feet 7 inches
   total weight            600 kilograms       1,320 pounds
   warhead weight          300 kilograms       660 pounds

   speed                   high subsonic
   range at altitude       200 kilometers      125 MI / 110 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The RBS-15F is Flygvapnet JAS-39 Gripen and was carried on the AJS-37 Viggen fighter. The missile's advanced navigation system can store a large number of map "waypoints" to allow it to maneuver through complicated flight profiles, and it can even perform "feints", closing in on one target and then veering off abruptly to hit another at the very last moment.

SAAB is now working on a land-attack derivative of the RBS-15F with a "stealthy" radar system, infrared terminal seeker, and new warhead, for introduction no earlier than 2004.

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[9.3] LIGHT ANTISHIP MISSILES: AS-12 / AS-15TT / SEA SKUA

* The most prominent of the wire-guided missiles developed in the 1950s were the Nord (later Aerospatiale) "SS-10" and "SS-11" missiles, which were small, short-range anti-armor weapons that could be carried by a soldier or launched from a ground vehicle or helicopter. These weapons led to a larger and more powerful derivative, the Nord "AS-12", intended for use against heavy ground targets or ships. The AS-12 was still smaller than most modern antishipping missiles, but it was a popular weapon, with over 8,100 produced by the time production ended in 1982.

The AS-12 had stubby cruciform wings mounted in the midsection, and was powered by a boost-sustain solid rocket engine. The missile could be fitted with a bulbous hollow-charge armor-piercing warhead, or a fragmentation warhead.

   NORD / AEROSPATIALE AS-12:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                65 centimeters      2 feet 2 inches
   length                  1.87 meters         6 feet 2 inches
   total weight            76 kilograms        168 pounds
   warhead weight          28 kilograms        63 pounds

   speed                   370 KPH             230 MPH / 200 KT
   range at altitude       8 kilometers        5 MI / 4 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The AS-12 was sold to dozens of countries. It was not only carried by helicopters, but by fixed-wing maritime patrol aircraft such as the Breguet Alize and Atlantique, the Lockheed Neptune, and the BAE Nimrod. A number of AS-12s were fired by both the British and the Argentines in the Falklands War, and the British used one to cripple an Argentine submarine.

* The AS-12 is now obsolete due to its short range, low speed, small warhead, and clumsy guidance system. However, Aerospatiale still saw a niche for a helicopter-borne light antishipping missile, and in the 1980s the company introduced a somewhat larger and more sophisticated follow-on weapon, the "AS-15TT", where "TT" stands for "Tous Temps (All Weather)".

The sleek AS-15TT has small cruciform tail fins, and swept-back wings mounted in the midsection. The wings have antenna pods mounted on their tips. The missile is fitted with a blast-fragmentation warhead derived from that used on the AS-12. Although it does have a radar altimeter for sea-skimming attacks, it does not have a terminal seeker. Targeting is performed by the launch helicopter using radar, and flight instructions are relayed to the missile by a digital data link.

   AEROSPATIALE AS-15TT:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                56.4 centimeters    1 feet 10 inches
   length                  2.6 meters          7 feet 1 inch
   total weight            100 kilograms       220 pounds
   warhead weight          30 kilograms        66 pounds

   speed                   high subsonic
   range at altitude       15 kilometers       9 MI / 8 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

* The British Aerospace "Sea Skua" is another light antiship missile in the same class as the AS-15TT, and is also designed for helicopter launch. It is shaped somewhat like a small torpedo, with triangular cruciform guidance fins fitted towards the front and stubby fixed cruciform fins fitted to the tail, offset from the forward fins by 45 degrees. It has a boost-sustain solid rocket motor and a SAP warhead.
   BAE SEA SKUA:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                72 meters           2 feet 5 inches
   length                  2.5 meters          8 feet 2 inches
   total weight            145 kilograms       345 pounds
   warhead weight          20 kilograms        44 pounds

   speed                   high subsonic
   range at altitude       15 kilometers       9 MI / 8 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The Sea Skua was originally designed for use with the British Navy's Westland Lynx helicopter, and to replace SS-12s carried by the British Army's Westland Wasp helicopter. It began with a series of studies conducted by British Aircraft Corporation in the late 1960s, leading to a development contract in 1972, trials beginning in 1978, and introduction to service in the early 1980s.

A Lynx can carry four Sea Skuas. The missile uses a semi-active radar homing seeker, with the missile zeroing in on reflections of the Lynx's Ferranti Seaspray radar beam off the target. In operation, after the helicopter's fire control system identifies the target and fixes its location, the weapons operator performs a small set of GO-NOGO checks on the missile, and then fires it. Once launched, the Sea Skua will drop down to one of four preprogrammed altitudes over the water, selected as appropriate for wave height, and maintain altitude during cruise with its radar altimeter.

The weapon was used with good effect during the Falklands war even before its formal operational introduction, with two each fired by two Lynx helicopters in a blizzard to sink one Argentine vessel and cripple another. It was also used in the Gulf War, and was said to have scored a dozen hits with a dozen shots. The Sea Skua is now in service with several countries.

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[9.4] KONGSBERG PENGUIN / NSM

* The Norwegians realized in the 1950s that they could not afford a large naval force to defend their coastline, and so emphasized the development of fast, well-armed patrol boats as a low-cost equalizer. The emphasis on patrol boats led to a need for a smart antiship missile to give them an effective weapon. In 1962, the Norwegian government authorized initial studies of a missile that would become known as the "Penguin", with the US Navy providing financial assistance for the demonstration phase of the program. The prime contractor was Kongsberg Vaapenfabrik of Norway.

The US Navy also provided test facilities for Penguin development from 1963 through 1965. The tests were highly successful, and go-ahead was given for full-scale development. The West German government also provided financial assistance during the full-scale development phase, in exchange for access to the technology.

The Penguin "Mark 1" reached full operational status with Norwegian frigates and patrol boats in 1972, and was also sold to Turkey. The Mark 1 was followed in the late 1970s by the Mark 2, which was developed in cooperation with Sweden. The "Mark 2" offered longer range and an improved guidance system. The Penguin Mark 1 and Mark 2 are fired from fixed canisters on board the launch vessel.

* The success of the ship-launched Penguin led to a helicopter-launched version, with the latest model of this variant designated the "Mark 2 Mod 7", as well as a "Mark 3" version for launch by fixed-wing aircraft. The Penguin Mark 2 Mod 7 is a relatively small antiship missile with a a distinctive and unusual canard configuration. It features folding curved cruciform rear wings and small cruciform control fins around the nose. It is propelled by a boost-sustain solid fuel rocket motor and has a SAP warhead.

   PENGUIN MARK 2 MOD 7:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                1.4 meters          4 feet 7 inches
   length                  3.1 meters          10 feet
   total weight            385 kilograms       847 pounds
   warhead weight          120 kilograms       265 pounds

   speed                   high subsonic
   range at altitude       27 kilometers       17 MI / 15 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The Mark 2 Mod 7 has a sophisticated digital guidance system. After launch, it proceeds to the target area under direction of an INS. It can take an oblique path to the target, turning up to 180 degrees around a waypoint, and also can perform random weaves. Terminal guidance is provided by a passive infrared seeker, instead of an active radar seeker as is the case for most other antiship missiles. When the Penguin was developed, the design team was uncertain that an active radar seeker could be designed that could fit into the relatively small missile.

In terminal attack, the Penguin can either strike the target at the waterline, or pop up and dive into it. The Penguin Mark 2 Mod 7 is operational with helicopters of the Norwegian, US, Greek, and Australian navies. In US service, it is designated the "AGM-119B".

Relatively few details are available on the Penguin Mark 3, other than that it has fixed instead of folding wings as used on the ship and helicopter launched versions. It is carried by Norwegian Air Force F-16 fighters. Its air launch gives it incrementally longer range than the ship-launched variants.

Ship-launched Penguins have received successive upgrades, and are expected to remain in service until at least 2015.

* Although the Penguin is a popular weapon, it is beginning to show its age, and so Kongsberg is now developing a "New Anti-Ship Missile (NSM)" for the Norwegian government. Like Penguin, the NSM will be launched from patrol boats, helicopters, and fixed-wing aircraft. The NSM will be powered by a Turbomeca turbojet engine, giving it longer range than the Penguin, and will be "stealthy" to avoid detection as it closes in on its target. It will have an infrared seeker like the Penguin, but a GPS-INS navigation system for midcourse guidance.

   KONGSBERG NSM (PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS):
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                1.4 meters          4 feet 7 inches
   length                  3.95 meters         12 feet 11 inches
   total weight            < 420 kilograms     925 pounds
   warhead weight          120 kilograms       265 pounds

   speed                   high subsonic
   range at altitude       > 150 kilometers    95 MI / 80 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

Kongsberg is working with EADS (previously Aerospatiale-Matra) on the NSM, and the missile is expected to enter service in 2005 on Norwegian frigates, possibly fast patrol boats, and the Eurocopter NH90 helicopter.

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[9.5] EXOCET

* One of the best known of all antiship missiles is the French EADS (previously Aerospatiale) "Exocet (Flying Fish)". The Exocet has been adopted by many military forces, and has made headlines in high-profile combat actions.

The original "MM38 Exocet" (where MM stood for "Mer-Mer" or "ship-ship" and 38 was the design range in kilometers), was generally ship-launched, though it could also be used for coastal defense. The French government began the program in 1968. In 1971, the British government joined the program, sharing the development costs. The MM38 entered service in 1972 on French and British patrol boats and frigates. It is launched from a box canister mounted on deck,

The MM38 was followed by the air-launched "AM39" Exocet. It was originally introduced into service in 1977 on French Navy Super Frelon helicopters, which can carry two Exocets each, and then in 1978 on French Navy Dassault Super Etendard naval strike fighters, which can carry one Exocet each. The Dassault Mirage F1 fighter and Aerospatiale Super Puma helicopter were also later qualified to carry the Exocet. The AM39 was followed in turn by the sub-launched "SM39", and then the surface-launched extended range "MM40".

Details of the different types of Exocets vary, but the MM38 provides a baseline configuration. The missile has sweptback cruciform main wings and cruciform tail control fins. It is powered by a boost-sustain solid rocket motor, and is fitted with a SAP warhead with a secondary proximity fuze. All versions of the Exocet have a conventional antiship missile guidance system, consisting of an INS for midcourse guidance, a radar altimeter for sea skimming, and a radar seeker for terminal attack. The MM38 is out of production, having been replaced by the MM40.

   MM38 EXOCET:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                1 meters            3 feet 4 inches
   length                  5.2 meters          17 feet 1 inch
   total weight            735 kilograms       1,620 pounds
   warhead weight          165 kilograms       364 pounds

   speed                   subsonic
   range at altitude       42 kilometers       26 MI / 23 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The AM39 is shorter and lighter than the MM38, with a length of 4.68 meters (15 feet 5 inches) and a total weight of 660 kilograms (1,455 pounds). The wings are triangular instead of swept-back as with the MM38, though the span is the same. The warhead is also the same, but the AM39 achieves longer range of up to 75 kilometers (47 miles) by virtue of being launched from altitude by a fast-moving platform. The AM39 remains in production in the form of a "Block 2" subvariant, which apparently has much the same configuration as the initial Block 1 subvariant but has improved subsystems.

The SM39 is similar to the AM39, but has folding control surfaces, and is launched from a torpedo tube inside a canister. The canister pops open when it reaches the surface of the water, and then the missile ignites its motor and flies off. As with the AM39, the SM39 remains in production, in the form of a "Block 2" subvariant with improved subsystems.

The MM40 is longer and heavier than the MM38, with a length of 5.64 meters (18 feet 6 inches) and a weight of 825 kilograms (1,819 pounds). It has the same warhead as the MM38, but a longer range of 70 kilometers (43 miles) due to its larger motor. The current production version of the MM40 is the "Block 2" with improved subsystems.

EADS is now developing a substantially improved "Block 3" MM40. The Block 3 will be launched with a solid-fuel booster that will be discarded, with a Turbomeca turbojet engine providing cruise power and a range of at least 180 kilometers (110 miles). It will have a new insensitive blast-fragmentation warhead, an improved radar seeker, and a GPS-INS guidance that can be programmed to follow multiple waypoints. The improved guidance system will allow it to attack ground targets as well as naval targets.

* At least 3,000 Exocets have been built to 2002, and supplied to 33 countries. The missile made a great impression on the world's navies during the Falklands War in 1982. On 4 May, an Argentine Super Etendard put an Exocet into the British destroyer HMS SHEFFIELD, damaging the vessel so badly that it sank a few days later. On 27 May, the Argentines also sank the container ship ATLANTIC CONVEYOR with an Exocet. Fortunately for the British, the Argentines had only five Exocets and expended four of them in these attacks.

The Exocet saw combat again during the Iran-Iraq War. The Iraqis bought a large quantity of Exocets from the French, who also obligingly provided a pair of Super Etendards to launch them, though the Iraqis eventually turned to the Mirage F1 as a launch aircraft. The missiles were used extensively in attacks on tankers during 1984. One of the Iraqi Super Etendards was shot down during the Gulf War.

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[9.6] OTOMAT / MARTE

* The "Otomat" antiship missile was developed by a collaboration between OTO-Melara (now Alenia-Oto) of Italy and Matra of France in the early 1970s. The Otomat is a turbojet powered, long range weapon for launch by attack craft and shore batteries. An air-launched version was considered, but never developed. The Otomat has proven a popular weapon and has been sold to a number of countries.

Studies for an antishipping missile were begun independently in 1967 by OTO-Melara and Matra. In 1969, they signed an agreement for joint development, resulting in initial prototype test launches in 1971. Pre-production launches of the Otomat Mark 1 followed in 1972, with initial operational deliveries beginning in 1976.

However, while the French Navy found the Mark 1 satisfactory, the Italian Navy wanted a different seeker head. Test flights of the resulting Otomat Mark 2 began in 1974, with operational deployment ten years later. The Mark 2 is known as the "Teseo" in Italian Navy service, and has not been offered for export.

The Otomat is a somewhat unusual-looking missile. Its fuselage is torpedo-shaped, and it has stubby cruciform tailfins for flight control, with cruciform swept-back wings forward of the tailfins. Each wing is mounted on a small air intake conduit, and ends in what appears to be a small antenna fairing.

The Otomat is launched by a pair of Hotchkiss-Brandt solid rocket boosters, attached on opposite sides of the fuselage and mounted amidships between the wings. Each booster provides 34.3 kN (3,500 kgp / 7,720 lbf) of thrust for about four seconds, and is then jettisoned. Main propulsion is provided by a Turbomeca TR-281 Arbizon turbojet engine, with 3.92 kN (400 kgp / 880 lbf) thrust.

   OTOMAT MARK 1:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                1.3 meters          4 feet 5 inches
   length                  4.46 meters         14 feet 8 inches
   total weight            770 kilograms       1,700 pounds
   warhead weight          210 kilograms       460 pounds

   speed                   Mach 0.9
   range at altitude       60 kilometers       37 MI / 32 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The 60 kilometer range of the Mark 1 appears to be limited by the guidance system instead of fuel, since if two Mark 1 missiles are fired together, they can cooperate to obtain improved targeting, allowing range to be extended to 80 kilometers (50 miles).

The Mark 2 has an a maximum range of 180 kilometers (112 miles) through use of the TG-2 data link, which allows mid-course corrections to be provided by a helicopter fitted with search radar. The coastal defense version is said to have a maximum range of 300 kilometers (186 miles) along a coastline if relay stations are available to provide course updates.

The missile is fitted with a armor-piercing warhead that includes both an explosive and an incendiary charge, and can penetrate up to 44 millimeters (1.5 inches) of metal armor. The warhead is then detonated by a delayed action fuze, with the blast directed downward to breach the hull. The warhead also includes a secondary proximity fuze to detonate the warhead if the missile overflies the target.

The Otomat is stored on board ship in a sealed fiberglass container. It can be left in the container for a year without maintenance. To fire the Otomat, the launch vessel downloads targeting information into the missile's guidance system, and then steps it through the launch sequence. Launch can take place a minimum of 30 seconds after the vessel acquires the target on radar or other sensors. The launch container is fitted on deck at a low angle to forward. After launch, the Otomat can turn around 200 degrees, so the vessel can fire the weapon while trying to escape a pursuer. Once in the air, the Otomat climbs to an altitude of 80 meters (260 feet) and then drops to a sea-skimming cruise altitude of 20 meters (65 feet). It maintains course under control of an INS and radar altimeter.

The Mark 1 is fitted with a two-axis radar seeker, designed by Thomson-CSF. The missile cruises until it is about 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) from the target's position, as determined by a timer set during the launch sequence by the launch vessel's fire-control system, and then switches on the seeker.

The seeker scans back and forth 20 degrees to each side of the nose until it locks on to the target. When the seeker detects that the target is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) away, the missile climbs, reaching a maximum altitude of about 175 meters (575 feet) at a range of about 1.8 kilometers (1.1 miles) from the target, and then dives into the relatively unprotected upper deck of the target.

If the seeker is being jammed and cannot obtain an accurate range fix, the Mark 1 begins its climb at 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) from the target, as determined by the timer. The missile then rises to 175 meters, as before, and performs a more gradual dive to ensure that it doesn't overshoot the target.

The pop-up maneuver of the Mark 1 Otomat makes it visible to the target vessel during the last 12 seconds of attack, and its two-axis seeker head is subject to interference from radar reflections from the sea surface. The Mark 2 Otomat has an Italian-designed single-axis seeker that was designed to compensate for these limitations.

The Mark 2's cruise phase is much like that of the Mark 1's, with the missile cruising at 20 meters (66 feet) until it reaches the target area. However, once in the target area, the Mark 2 drops to 10 meters (33 feet) during its search phase, using a wide-angle search pattern to acquire the target. The Mark 2 generally can acquire a target from 5 kilometers (3 miles) away. Once it acquires the target, the missile drops to wavetop height to slam into the target from the side.

* OTO-Melara also produced a light antishipping missile named "Sea Killer", for launch by Italian Navy missile boats, with development beginning in 1967. As it was introduced, it looked something like a large Sparrow missile with trapezoidal wings and rectangular tailfins. It had a length of 3.73 meters (12 feet 3 inches), a launch weight of 168 kilograms (370 pounds), and a modest range of 10 kilometers (6.2 miles).

The Sea Killer evolved into an improved weapon, the "Marte Mark 2", which amounted to a new weapon with a much different configuration, with a bigger warhead, longer range, and capability for both shipboard and helicopter launch. The Marte is of very simple configuration, with a slender pipe of a fuselage, a bulbous nose, cruciform tailfins, and central cruciform wings. It looks something like an outdoor lamp with wings. It has a SAP warhead with a secondary proximity fuze, and is powered by a boost-sustain solid rocket motor.

   MARTE:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                1 meter             3 feet 4 inches
   length                  4.7 meters          15 feet 5 inches
   total weight            300 kilograms       660 pounds
   warhead weight          70 kilograms        154 pounds

   speed                   subsonic
   range at altitude       20 kilometers       12 MI / 11 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The Marte uses an INS to get it into the target area, and then performs its terminal attack under guidance of a radar seeker. Ship-launched versions with a booster stage have also been developed, and the weapon has been purchased by other countries, including Peru, Venezuela, Iran, and Libya.

The Iranians obtained the Marte during the Shah's reign, and have since worked on building it themselves, test-flying a helicopter-launched version with a TV seeker in 2000. The Iranian weapon is named the "Fajr-e Darya". It is unclear if it will be put into production.

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[9.7] SEA EAGLE

* The Anglo-French Martel missile was a landmark in guided weapons design, and was used for both ground and naval attack. By the early 1970s, however, the Martel was becoming increasingly outdated, and the British began investigations in 1973 for a follow-on antiship missile under the designation "P3T".

Actual design work began in 1976, followed by a preliminary development contract in 1977, and a full scale development contract in 1979. Construction of production weapons began in 1982, with evaluation trials in 1984 and service introduction, as the "Sea Eagle", in 1985. The first aircraft to carry the type was the Buccaneer, which could carry four Sea Eagles, and the Sea Harrier, which could carry two.

The Sea Eagle is a conventional modern antiship missile. It is turbojet powered, skims over wavetops using a radar altimeter with direction by an INS, and has a radar terminal seeker. It has a programmable guidance system providing a large set of cruise, search, and attack options.

The Sea Eagle has triangular cruciform main wings and small cruciform triangular tail control fins. It is powered by a Microturbo TRI-60 engine. The engine intake is slung under the fuselage, and is capped by an aerodynamic fairing that is blown off at launch. The missile is fitted with a SAP warhead.

   BAE SEA EAGLE:
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                1.2 meters          3 feet 11 inches
   length                  4.14 meters         13 feet 7 inches
   total weight            600 kilograms       1,320 pounds
   warhead weight          230 kilograms       510 pounds

   speed                   Mach 0.85
   range at altitude       110 kilometers      68 MI / 60 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

The Sea Eagle was eventually qualified for operation on RAF Tornado GR-1B and Indian Air Force Jaguar strike fighters. The Indian Navy also operates the Sea Eagle with Sea King helicopters, firing the missile with dual strap-on solid rocket boosters. It appears that British Sea Eagles have been stockpiled, but India continues to use the weapon.

A ship-launched version was considered but never built, as was a long-range version with an imaging infrared seeker and data link, named "Golden Eagle".

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